Period Cost vs Product Cost Period Cost Examples & Formula Video & Lesson Transcript

what is product cost

When the raw materials are brought in they will sit on the balance sheet. When the product is manufactured and then sold a corresponding amount from the inventory account will be moved to the income statement. So if you sell a widget for $20 that had $10 worth of raw materials, you would record the sale as a credit to sales and a debit either cash or accounts receivable.

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These costs are directly added to the total production cost of a finished good. Likewise, the salary of the assembly line worker who mounts the tires on rims and bolts them onto the car would be considered a product cost because it is necessary to manufacture the end product. All of these costs arecapitalizedand reported on the balance sheet as either a raw material, work in process inventory, or finished good.

Product vs. Period Costs

When the goods are sold, these costs are recorded on the income statement as an expense. Non-manufacturing costs are generally broken down into selling costs and general and administrative costs. The cost of a product on a unit basis is derived by compiling all the costs incurred in producing all the units then dividing by the total units produced. The factory overhead budget helped the company’s management estimate the variable and fixed factory overheads separately and helped determine the required amount of cash to be disbursed to meet overhead expenses. Balance SheetA balance sheet is one of the financial statements of a company that presents the shareholders’ equity, liabilities, and assets of the company at a specific point in time. It is based on the accounting equation that states that the sum of the total liabilities and the owner’s capital equals the total assets of the company. Ltd, a small shirt manufacturing company, requires fabric, thread, and buttons.

  • Product improvement and modification, including costs of correcting defects and standardization of materials and packaging.
  • Direct labor, however, is the total labor costs in the form of wages, benefits as well as insurance incurred in the production process.
  • Product costs are often treated as inventory and are referred to as “inventoriable costs” because these costs are used to value the inventory.
  • Cost accounting and product costing are two accounting methods for determining the cash needed to create goods and services.
  • Where standard costing is not used, actual product costs (usually “lot costs”) flow into the cost of goods sold , thereby flowing such variances into the financials in a different manner than with standard costing.

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The $10 direct materials would be a debit to cost of goods sold and a credit to inventory . The company has one very large manufacturing facility but has a few dealerships and offices around the country. The company manufactured and sold 1,000 cars during the fourth quarter. Each car costs $10,000 in direct materials, $10,000 in direct labor, and $20,000 in manufacturing overhead. The company has three executives who each get paid $250,000 every quarter. Additionally, the company employs one lawyer who gets paid $75,000 every quarter, and one accountant who gets paid $75,000 every quarter.


Table 1.4 “Accounts Used to Record Product Costs” summarizes the accounts used to track product costs. Figure 1.6 “Flow of Product Costs through Balance Sheet and Income Statement Accounts” shows how product what is product cost costs flow through the balance sheet and income statement. Your understanding of them will help clarify how product costs flow through the accounts and where product costs appear in the financial statements.

  • Imperative to the optimization activity is establishing a scientific baseline of cost for each component of a product.
  • It measures, records and analyzes both fixed and variable costs for this purpose.
  • Such costs can be determined by identifying the expenditure on cost objects.
  • They do, however, contribute to the production and manufacturing ecosystem.